who "心灵浮燥" ah? @[email protected]
这篇东西其实我昨天贴过一次，但是直接从word里面copy & paste出来，生成的代码实在有问题……脚注的连接错得离谱……只好删除掉，现在重新整理过代码……文章中有脚注的话，点击后会跳到文章最后相应脚注，而再点一下相应脚注前面的连接，又回跳会原来的地方……
偶花了二三十个的时间在这篇东西上面……前面收集／阅读资料的时间花了差不多8小时……然后，从12号下午4点开始一直写到13号中午10点……中间几乎没有停过……到了13号上午的时候，看着电脑屏幕是花的……去睡了半小时……算是心血吧……但是，自己写完后再看看这篇东西，是很失望的……没有写出我想写的东西……语言的使用更是差得无比……这篇东西是必须在13号中午12点的时候交的……我之前记错了截止日期……所以才赶得如此辛苦……同时也是因为偶喜欢“Chinese Business in Singapore and beyong”这门课……对于论文的题目也是很喜欢……对这篇东西能够得到的分数还是很期待的……倘若再给我24小时，我是很渴望将其写得更好的……现在写成了这个样子，真的很失望……有点浪费了我从八邑会馆找来的那些资料……相信，像新加坡宗乡会馆各年度活动报告等东西，不是随便可以找来的东西……
昨天晚上先发给姐姐看了……她也是在修读同一样一门课，写跟我同样的题目的论文……因为技术原因，我一直没法看到她写的那篇……她看完我的后，居然给了“yr essay got quite some gramma mistakes...waw actually i think yr essay s much better than mine...content wise n organisation...but mayb more emphasis on the present day associations...n check yr spelling n gramma aft u finished yr essay maybe”这样的评价。一直很佩服姐姐，她给我这样的评价，我已经开心得飞起了……
Chinese clan or dialect associations in past and present day Singapore
The history of Chinese clan or dialect associations is as long as the modern history of Singapore . The role of Chinese clan or dialect association change as Singapore develops. It always devote to philanthropy, business and education. However, its main focus is changing from time to time. This essay is going to chronicle these evolvements, thus to have a better understanding of Chinese clan or dialect associations in the past and present day in Singapore .
Tabke of Content
1:Different types of Chinese clan and associations
8:The New Trend
Different types of clans and associations
Chinese clans and association is a general term. These organisations actually can be divided into several types according to its formation or purpose, namely dialect association, clan, trade/occupational association, mutual help group, recreational club and religious groups. The first three types have much greater impacts on the society then the other three. This essay therefore will focus on the dialect association, clan, trade/occupational association.
Dialect association was based on blood, geographical and dialect lines. It was usually set up by wealthy Chinese immigrants as a mean to help the new comers from the same region and to enforce the relationship. It was aim to provide all kinds of supports for its own dialect groups. The major dialect groups are Hokkiens ( 福建人 ), Teochews （潮洲人） , Cantonese （广东人） , Hakkas （客家人） and Hainanese （海南人） . These five major dialect groups occupied about 88% of the Chinese immigrants in Singapore in late 19 centuries. endnote 1:
Clan was founded usually based around religious observations. It may transcend the dialect, blood or geographical boundaries. Therefore, its main purpose was not on the welfare of any single dialect group, it focused on the general goods of the Chinese community, for example, maintenance of ancestral worships or traditional festivals. It also acted as the arbiter when there was dispute among members. Clan also emphasized on education as it was vital to keep the Chinese traditional cultures and values.
These associations were usually called bang( 帮 ). They were set up by successful businessmen to enforce business cooperation among members and unite members' available resource to achieve greater financial benefit in competition with other companies. It was set up base on the business relationships, which ought to transcend dialect boundaries. However, the traditional Chinese business style was strong bind to family business. This characteristic caused bang to be dialect group oriented.
Different kinds of Chinese clan and dialect association may have different structures, different focus and serve different group of people. Nonetheless, they still have similarities when we analyse them from a higher perspective. They are just an organization to fulfil the community's needs. Furthermore, this community is the Chinese community in Singapore . It is justifiable to consider them as a whole.
Indeed, there are many overlapping among all these Chinese clans and associations, especially in the early period. Chinese leaders, like Tan Kah Kee ( 陈嘉庚 ) may be the leader of the Hokkien dialect group, the leader of rubber plantation bangs, at the same time, being the organiser of many education institutes. It is better to analyse the Chinese clan and dialect associations as a whole at different periods. Only when we ignore the inner differences among Chinese clans and dialect associations, we can have a better understanding of how its role changes from a “Philanthropist” to a “Businessman” to an “Educationalist” to a “Hibernator”, and finally become an “adventurer”.
In the year that Sir Stanford Raffles landed Singapore, 1981, Before Raffles landed Singapore, the carpenter, Chow Ah Chey( 曹亚志 ) and the cook, Liang Ya Sheng( 梁亚胜 ) volunteered to investigate the island firs. In the same year, Chow Ah Chey set up the The first Chinese clan in Singapore, Cho Kah Koon( 曹家馆 ) endnote 2: . This started the history of Chinese clan and association in Singapore .
The clans and association provided whatever things that the new Chinese settlers needed. They took care of the new immigrants or Xin Ke( 新客 ) from the same hometown, provided education to promote Chinese culture, setup clinic or gave medicines to the member needed. They just functioned as a philanthropist, who cared about every aspect of life.
Perhaps, one may argued that these early clans and association were only opened it door to its own dialect group, for example, the Cho Kah Koon. It only accepted people with surname “Chow” from Chow Ah Chey's hometown, Tai Shan( 台山 ) until 1971. However, this “selfish” characteristic is understandable. In 19th century, Singapore just started to develop as an international port under Raffles' direct. It was a hard time. These clans did not have enough resources for the good of everyone. The best they could do was to take a good care of the people considered closer, those with the same surname and from the same place. Every dialect group did try its best for its own people. If we consider their effort as a whole, they did deserve the name of Philanthropist.
When the time came to the 1890s and early 20th century, the “philanthropist” turns into a businessman. For the seven decades since the founding of Cho Kah Koon, 37 Chinese associations were founded, but only 5 of them were Chinese trade/occupational associations. However, 66 trade/occupational associations were founded from 1981 to 1941. This number is even higher than the number of new locality/dialect or clan/surname associations founded in the same period. endnote 3:
The change is actually a reflection of the development of Singapore 's economic. Singapore 's economic boomed in this period. The Chinese community has greater manageable resources, thus they shift its attention from the basic needs of people to business which will brings huge revenues for the community. The co-operation among different dialect groups needed to be enforced. The Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce and Industry (SCCSI, 新加坡中华总商会 ) endnote 4: was founded in 1906. It is a organization that aim to serve the whole Chinese community especially for the business and industrial developments. It transcends all the locality and dialect boundaries. For almost a century, SCCSI is still active in serving the Chinese community and promote business.
The role of Chinese clans and association is not only influenced by the local situation. The worldwide circumstance affects it as well. During the Great Depression in the 1930s, the Chinese business in Singapore also significantly affected. This is also one of the reasons that the numbers of trade/occupational association jumped. The Chinese businessmen simple needed to unite together and fight with economic depression.
When the World War 2 came, the Chinese clan and association was once again need to change its role adapting to world worldwide situation.
In the 1940s, Singapore was colonised by the British. Though, the Chinese had started immigrating to Singapore for more than hundred years, the Chinese community was still concerned about the place they come from, Tang Shan ( 唐山 ).
After the Shandong Tragedy in 1928, all the Chinese clan and associations engaged in a struggle against imperialism and feudalism under the leadership of Tan Kah Kee. The Association for the Relief of the Victims of the Shandong Tragedy was founded by Tan Kah Kee. It raised a donation of 1.43 million dollars within 9 months. endnote 5: This is the greatest nationalism movement in the Chinese political history in Singapore .
It was the age of patriot. The Chinese clan and society not only devoted to the war against imperialism and feudalism in China ; when the Japanese invasion spread into Singapore , they also co-operated with the colonist government to fight against Japanese. Chin Kang Huay Kuan ( 晋江会馆 ) acted as the central base for the Singapore Chinese Mobilization Council ( 华侨抗敌动员委员会 ). After fighting the Japanese with the colonist government and communities of other races, the Chinese community actually formed a stronger self-recognition in Singapore . This result in the role of Chinese clan and association changed again when the World War 2 ended.
The Chinese clan and association used to set up school for the youth. These contributions were actually limited. They just focus on the fast outcomes, like teaching new workers to read thus they could understand business contract. However, after the World War 2, the Chinese community eventually considered to education with a long term aim. It was because their self-recognition in Singapore got stronger. They had to think about their future development in Singapore with a deeper insight. The Chinese clan and association must grab the chance to develop with faster pace after common activities stopped by the war in the past 3-4 years.
Education is vital to any community's long term development. The Chinese clan and association were enthusiastic about education since the mid 1940s to 1950s. They were not only funding for schools but for polytechnic and university. In 1953, Mr Tan Lark Sye （陈六使） initiated to build a Chinese university (Nanyang University endnote 6: ). The Hokkien Huay Kuan ( 福建会馆 ) under Mr Tan Lark Sye's leadership, donated the Yunnan Garden ( 云南园 ), a piece of land of 523 acres, for the site of proposed Chinese university. endnote 7: All the clans and associations actively involved in this project which would have great impact on the Chinese community.
When the time came to the 1970s, Singapore 's economic was booming with the greatest pace. Nonetheless, the activities of the Chinese clan and association seemed to stop. Only big associations like the Hokkien Huan Kuan or Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan （潮洲八邑会馆） endnote 8: were able to organise Chinese cultural performance and made limited impacts on the society.
The “hibernation” is due to three reasons.
First, China was in chaos of the Cultural Revolution in this period. The Chinese community in Singapore was not able to contact with their relatives in China at all. This forced them to consider them as Singaporean instead of Chinese in Singapore to a certain extend.
The second reason was the control of from the government. The Chinese clan and association always gave a strong impression of China . There were people advocating China 's ideology in Singapore . In another word, there was trend to get Singapore communised. The ex-prime minister Lee Kuan Yew had no choice but to stop this trend with iron fist. The Nanyang University or the greatest project that the Chinese community ever had, was the symbol of the Chinese, and it has always been the headache of the government. In September 1963, the day after Singapore 's election, Ministry of Home Affairs announced to deprive Mr. Tan Lark Sye's citizenship endnote 9: . This may be the most significant event showing Singapore government's will to control the Chinese community in Singapore .
The third reason is that Singapore was getting lesser and lesser immigrants and it had developed into an urbanized country. Since 1960s, the government set up Community Centres, Citizens' Consultative Committees and Residents' Committees in new housing estates. Other associations cutting across ethnic dialect lines were also formed to facilitate racial harmony. The new organizations had similar aim as the traditional Chinese clan and association, but the formal had strong support from the government, thus were able to accomplish these tasks much better.
Under these outer and internal pressures, it is understandable that the Chinese clan and association had been “hibernating” for the whole 1970s until the mid 1980s.
The Chinese clan and association finally awakened in 1986. The founding of Singapore Federation of Chinese Clan Association ( 新加坡宗乡会馆联合总会 , SFCCA) on January 27th 1986 was a sign of this revival. After decades of hibernation, the Chinese community finally grouped up and searched for its new position in modern Singapore .
This adventure was not an easy task. The clans and associations faced various problems.
The first is their failure to gain attention from the teenagers. The people operated the association before the “hibernation” had to continue operate again after revival. It is difficult to find successors. In SFCCA's survey, 118 associations provided scholarship or financial aid to 3,406 students annually. Nonetheless, only 105 students return to serve the association after graduation in the past five years (1994-1999). endnote 10:
It results in the second problem: Out-dated process method. In this information technology age, these associations appeared resistant to implement new technology in its operations, simply because their administers know little about new technology.
The new age is also an age without “authority”. Disputes within association appeared, and the association failed to solved them and resort to legal arbitrage. endnote 11: This is ironic that the Chinese clan and association have used to be the one settle disputes within the community.
However, they did have a good try adapting themselves in the new age. In July 1998, SFCCA signed contract with Chinese Business Network ( 华商网络私人有限公司 ) to assist its members (individual clan and association) setting up websites. endnote 12: In November 2003, successfully hold the 12 th Teochew International Convention hold by Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan, gained worldwide applauses. endnote 13:
The government does have its new expectation for the Chinese clan and association. Lee Hsien Loong pointed out that the current over 300 hundreds Chinese clans and associations need better co-operations and even mergence to cope with the challenges of the 21st century. endnote 14: The government is actually trying to give advices to these clans and associations, and at the same time leave complete freedom to them to make their own choice.
How to develop in the 21st century This is still an adventure for the Chinese clan and association.
The New trend
When the traditional Chinese clan and association are still adventuring, there are new associations setting up. They are the new trend of the Chinese clan and association, which may get a new role in the future.
Hua Yuan Association ( 华源会 ) was founded by the new Chinese immigrants in May 2001. It aims to promote friendships, thus to facilitate communication among member in areas including information technology, commerce and education and help members to adapt to the multi-racial society. endnote 15:
The Chinese students are also eager in forming Chinese student union or associations. They wish to have their own organizations to unite the Chinese students and help their juniors adapt to study and life in Singapore quickly. These groups are usually school based. However, there is one exception – the Singapore Chaoshan Students' Union ( 新加坡潮汕留学生联合会 , SCSU). SCSU is based on dialect group. endnote 16: It even made another exception by extending its activities back to China . In February 2003, SCSU successfully hold an exhibition titled “Teochew Students in Singapore( 潮汕学生在新加坡纪实展览 )” in Shantou ( 汕头 ). The opening ceremony was hold by the ex-mayor of Shantou, Li Chun Hong ( 李春洪 ).
The role of the Chinese clan and dialect association is constantly changing as Singapore develops. The essay is only a brief record of its enrolments. Nonetheless, when we start thinking the history, considering the bumpy path has been past though, we may have a better understanding of the roles that the Chinese clan and dialect association have played. The “Philanthropist”, “Businessman”, “Patriot”, “Educationalist”, “Hibernator” and “Adventurer” deserve our appreciation.
Social Change and the Chinese in Singapore , Cheng Lim-Keak, 1985 Singapore University Press Kent Ridge, Singapore 0511, ISBN 9971-69-077-2
Merchant Princes of the East, “Cultural Delusions, Economic Success and the Overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia”, Rupert Hodder, Chinese University of Hong Kong , 1996 by John Wiley & Sons Ltd, ISBN 0-471-96230-9
The immigrant experience of Overseas Teochew ( 海外潮人的移民经验 ), Lee Chee Hiang (Main editor), Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan & Global Publishing Co. INC, ISBN 879771-91-8
Challenge of the New Era, Special volume of 15 th anniversary of Singapore Federation of Chinese Clan Association
Singapore Federation of Chinese Clan Association's annual report of 1996/1997, 1998/1999, 1999/2000
The 13 th annual general meeting record of Singapore Federation of Chinese Clan Association
Singapore Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan Seventieth Anniversary Commemorative Publication 1929-1999, Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan, ISBN 981-3094-42-7
Achieve of the Amateurism Website of Toronto Alumni of Nanyang University ( 多伦多南洋大学校友业余网站 ) , http://www.nandazhan.com/archives.htm
Zao Bao Wang ( 早报网 ), Singapore Press Holding, http://www.zaobao.com
Official website of Nanyang Technological University , http://www.ntu.edu.sg
Official website of Singapore Federation of Chinese Clan Association, http://www.sfcca.org.sg
Official website of Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce & Industry, http://www.sccci.org.sg/
Official website of Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan, http://www.teochew.org.sg
Official website of Singapore Chaoshan Students' Union , http://www.xinchaoliu.net
endnote 1: Table: Percentage distribution of Chinese distribution of Chinese by dialect group 1881-1980. Social Change and the Chinese in Singapore , Cheng Lim-Keak, ISBN 9971-69-077-2, Page 14.
endnote 2: It is also called “Cho Clan House”.
endnote 3: Table Numbers and percentage distribution of Chinese locality/dialect, clan/surname and trade/occupational associations by period of establishment/registration –Social Change and the Chinese in Singapore , Cheng Lim-Keak, ISBN 9971-69-077-2, Page 39.
endnote 4: The SCCCI is the present name. It was called Zhonghua Shangwu Zonghui in 1906-1915 and Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce (SCCC) in 1915-1976.
endnote 5: Source: Singapore Federation of Chinese Clan Associations (SFCCA)'s website: http://www.sfcca.org.sg/Left/Vol/Organization.htm
endnote 6: Nanyang University merged with University of Singapore to form National University of Singapore in 1980.
endnote 7: A Brief Biography of Mr Tan Lark Sye by Nanyang Technological University The Association of Nanyang University Graduates. http://www.ntu.edu.sg/cclc/research/NTUFund.htm
endnote 8: Teochew was originally divided into ten districts (i.e., Chaoan( 潮安 ), Chaoyang( 潮阳 ),Jieyang( 揭阳 ), Raoping （饶平） , Huilai （惠来） , Chenghai （澄海） , Puning （普宁） , Nanao （南澳） , Dabu （大浦） and Fengshun （丰顺） ). Poit Ip ( 八邑 ) refers to the first eight districts (Dabu and Fengshun are largely populated by Hakkas). Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan is the largest association in the Teochew dialect group; and Ngee Ann Kongsi ( 义安公司 ) is the largest clan.
endnote 9: “The Ministry of Home Affairs resumed Mr. Tan Lark Sye's citizenship years later. ( 几年后，内政部恢复陈六使的公民权 )”-- 《 Recur Tan Lark Sye's glary image( 重现陈六使的光辉形像 ) 》 by Qu Ru Bai( 区如柏 ), Lian He Zaobao ( 联合早报 ) ， 2003-08-16.
endnote 10: Clan and Association Survey Statistics (199), Singapore Federation of Chinese Clan Association's annual report of 1998/1999, page 7.
endnote 11: One example may be the Hai Nan Hui Kuan. Its members had dispute on the committee election result in 1999. This dispute lasted for 8 months, and it is the first dispute that resort to lawsuit in its history of 145 years. – Lian He Zao Bao, 2000-02-25 : http://www.zaobao.com/zaobao/chinese/region/singapore/pages/singapore_chinese250200.html
endnote 12: Singapore Federation of Chinese Clan Association's annual report of 1998/1999, page 17.
endnote 12: Over 3000 teochew from 73 associations and organizations worldwide joined this convention. It got congratulations from noblemen including President of French - Jacques Chirac, Prime Minister of Australia - John Winston Howard, Ex-Prime Minister of Malaysia - Mahathir Mohamad.
endnote 14: Adapted from Lee Hsien Loong's speech in the 15 th anniversary of SFCCA. – Lian He Zao Bao, 2000-05-06: http://www.zaobao.com/zaobao/chinese/region/singapore/pages/singapore_chinese060500.html
endnote 15: Adapted from the introduction of Hua Yuan Association - http://www.myhuayuan.org/hyv23/intro.asp
endnote 16: SCSU is founded in July 2001 by a group of Chinese Teochew students from Ngee Ann Polytechnic, several Junior colleges, and secondary schools. SCSU exists as a branch of Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan.
问天 @ 2004-03-14 18:30:30
*confused* 在 2004-03-17 10:14:29 说:
who "心灵浮燥" ah? @[email protected]
reader ^^ 在 2004-03-17 10:13:29 说:
finally got time to read finish.. :)) quite comprehensive and well-organised :))
ugly gal 在 2004-03-17 01:49:55 说:
一个心灵浮燥的人. 就算读到PHD 也不会怎么样的.
maxloh 在 2004-03-14 20:41:55 说: